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博士论文《任昉研究》内容提要及研究提纲

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任昉出身清显,祖上是山东乐安郡博昌县的世族。晋东渡以后,在南兖州侨置了博昌县,即今天的扬州,任家世代居住在这里。任昉的母亲为闻喜县裴氏,也是山东巨族,他与文惠太子萧长懋、竟陵王萧子良、裴子野等是从中表。任姓门第较高,跟他们交流的都是高门贵族,任昉从小就受到贵族们的赏识,有很高的声誉。任昉字彦升。“昉”是齐语,暗寓了任昉是山东高门。“升”是“升”的俗语,表明了与南方俗族融合之意。“昉”和“升”都是开始的意思,穷极其源,这与任家信奉佛教有关。名和字意义相同,是当时士大夫命名的通例。“彦”是美貌的男士。六朝的时候,文士们十分讲究风流倜傥,有许人都取字为“彦”。任昉的小名“阿堆”,“堆”是“阜”的俗字,这里面暗寓了一飞冲天、一鸣惊人的典故,寄托了家人对任昉的期望。
任昉由于门第很高,加之从小孝敬长辈,十分好学,容貌伟岸,得到乡亲故旧的称赞,十六岁被举为本州岛的小官,举了秀才,当了太常博士。整个宋代,任昉的职位都很低,俸禄也很少。到了齐代,任昉得到王俭和萧子良的赏识,屡屡得到提拔。王俭和萧子良由于政治斗争失败,先后早早死去。任昉没有了依靠,还遭到齐明帝的猜忌、长期得不到重用,万般无奈之际,只得忍辱投靠了梅虫儿。直到梁武帝建国,作为梁武帝在萧子良幕府的老朋友,任昉才得到了重用。
任昉从南朝宋就开始了交游活动,他的结交十分广泛,几乎参与了齐梁时代所有有影响的文人集团。在任昉的交往圈子中,有北方的高门,也有南方的素族;有显宦,也有隐士。最为难得的是,任昉利用自己的影响,提拔和培养了大批出身低微的后进文士,这些文士对梁代的政治革新和文学革新都产生了重大影响。作为齐梁文士交游的典型代表,任昉受到时人的褒贬。刘孝标甚至还为此写了一篇十分出名的《广绝交论》。我们认为,任昉一生的交游,至少产生了以下效果:其一,促进了南北家族的融和;其二,加强了名教与隐伦间的沟通;其三,推动了学术的发展;其四,推动了诗体的革新。
任昉是齐梁时期的历史学家,曾做过梁武帝的史官,但没有任昉写过正史的记录。我们只知道任昉写过地理书和杂传。杂传的详情不可考,地理书却能知道一些眉目。我们从隋唐的目录中把任昉地理书书目一一考录出来。任昉的地理学大体属于方志一类,直接受到王俭与陆澄二人的影响,集汉、晋、宋、齐,南方与北方地理学之大成。
任昉还是很有成就的目录学家。他家里十分贫困,但他从十六岁就做了学官,开始钞录书籍,直到他死在新安任上,在三十多年的时间里,他搜集了一万多册书籍。他还钻研了目录,包括四部目录和七部目录。在当时,钻研书目是一种风气。由于他在书籍的收集和整理方面下了很大工夫,梁国建国初期,他受命搜罗书籍,并编写了《天监五年秘阁四部书目》。这是梁代的首部书目,对后代有开创之功,产生了重大影响。
任昉是梁代的文章家,有《文章缘起》传世。清人认为它是一部伪作,但所举的四条证据都不能成立,我们却能举出六条证据来说明今本《文章缘起》大抵是任昉当年所作的原貌。我们考察了“文章”、“缘起”、“始”的含义,知道这部书是在南朝文章学高度发达的基础上写成的,总结了汉代以来文章别集和总集的编篡学成果,吸收了佛教的缘起思想,归纳了八十四种文体,并一一道出其本原。《文章缘起》认为,大部分文体都产生于汉代,这是一种很先进的文体学思想,比起那些源于六经或战国的文原论来,更加接近文体发生的事实。在当时,文章与经术尖锐对立的情况标举文原学,是文章学独立的表现。《文章缘起》在著述上沿用了南朝文章学的惯例,保留了别集和名称,为我们深入研究汉以来别集提供了可贵的线索,完全可以和《诗品》、《文心雕龙》互相发明。由于《文章缘起》的分类主要是从编纂学的角度来考虑,所以分类注重于文体的形式而不在内容,加之使用的一级目录分类法,所收的文体达八十四种之多。尽管后人认为《文章缘起》有这样那样的缺陷,但它确实代表了当时文体学的最高成就,为萧统的《文选》确立了文体分类的基础,也启发了刘勰的文原思想。更为深远的是,任昉的文原思想,一直影响到清代,我们完全可以梳理出一条文原学的发展脉络。如果我们将文体学细分为四种:一是释名学,一是文原学,一是文选学,一是文品学。那么,任昉在文章学上的地位十分明显,他是文原学的祖师。
作为齐梁诗坛一个代表性的诗人,任昉诗的显著特征是用事。我们很难从现存的任昉诗中发现这一特点,只能从与任昉同时的评论中知道这一情况,在《述异记》中,我们略微可以看到一些痕迹。任昉用事和沈约完全不同。沈约提出三易说,其中一条是易见事,即诗中典故要常见,容易被人理解。任昉作诗,典故来自很生僻的方志与小说。顺着《诗品》和《南齐书"文学传序》提供的线索,我们还可以考出齐梁时期任昉身后的一个诗派,包括谢超宗、丘灵鞠、刘祥、檀超、锺宪、颜则、顾则心、王融、刘绘、丘迟、刘苞、刘孝绰、王僧孺等人。原来,诗中指事,早在建安时期就开始了。但那时的指事,只是为了更清楚地叙述和抒情。晋代傅咸和应璩,发展到直接引经典入诗。宋代的颜延之、谢庄等人,用事更为典密,越来越学术化了。齐梁时期,任昉一系诗人,由于长期搜集钻研杂史类书,受经学影响不深,就在诗中引入一些经史以外的典故。再进一步比照,任昉诗派在回归历史传统中寻找诗歌革新的道路,沈约诗派在学习世俗、接收外来声律中突破旧体诗歌的樊篱。沈约和任昉所代表的,是自宋以来五言诗革新的两种思潮,和整个世界中世纪文学革新的两种趋势遥相呼应。到了梁代后期,这两股思潮合二为一,终于引发了宫体诗从内容到形式的崭新革命。研究任昉诗派在今天有着非同寻常的意义。
任笔知名度很高。在南朝,笔这个概念用得很广,但意义却含混不清。我们将笔放到言笔、刀笔、诗笔和文笔中加以厘辨,知道笔是指书面语言、历史与公文、诗以外的一切文字。只有文笔一词最飘忽不定,原来,这个笔只是一种习惯叫法,根本没有什么固定的意义。通过这些考察,我们知道,任笔是与任诗相对的概念,它涵括了任昉作品中除诗歌以外的所有文体。任笔的叙事和说理功能很强,有很强的感情色彩,使事用典形式丰富、恰当自然,行文缜密、委婉自如。任笔的风格受到傅咸、王俭的直接影响,并对北齐魏收、陈代的庾信都产生了重要影响。从骈文发展史的角度来看,任笔是由宋代过分追求对偶用典的骈文发展到陈代的徐庾体的转折点,对推动骈文的进一步发展起到了重要作用。从世界中世纪文学的宏观视野来看,任笔恰好体现了中心文体和边缘文体相融和的趋势。
以上是《任昉研究》正文的全部内容,共八卷二十九节。每节至少解决一个问题每个结果都是本文的创新点,决不抄袭陈见。
[关键词]任昉 文章缘起 任笔 任诗 Study on REN Fang
ABSTRACT
RENFang, descended from a noble family in Bo chang District, Le an County,Shan Dong province. Following the East Jin dynasty all his oldergenerations had settled down in Bo chang County established in Southgun State, which is now the city of Yang zhou. REN Fang’s mother wasalso born of a distinguished family surnamed PEI in Wen xi County, ShanDong province. Those royal figures such as prince XIAO Chang-Mao, XIAOZi-Liang and PEI Zi-Ye were REN Fang’s cousins. Because his high familystatus and frequent contact with as well as intimate relationship withpatricians REN Fang was highly appreciated by them and thereforeenjoyed very high reputation. REN Fang had another name Yan -Sheng. “Fang” in the language of the country of Qi implied that REN Fang hasnoble origin and “Sheng” indicated merging of REN-surnamed Family andordinary families in the south. Both “Fang” and “Sheng” mean “thebeginning”, which seems to indicate that REN-surnamed Family hadreligious belief in Buddhism. “ Yan” in the older times signifies aman’s good-looking appearance. REN Fang’s infant name is A Dui. “Dui”embraced their family members’ hope and expectations towards REN Fang,who was later respectfully addressed as REN Zhong-Cheng for the reasonthat in the Liang dynasty ruled by emperor Wu he was appointed Yu ShiZhong Chen, a position at that time only the noble families werequalified for.
High family status, along with showing filialrespects and duties, being diligent and having good appearance, enabledREN Fang to gain the local people’s praise and supports, which made himhold power in positions changing from an inferior official of thestate, to Xiu Cai conferred to those who had passed the imperialexamination at the county level in the ancient China, then to Xue Guanin charge of scholastic affairs. However, during the entire Songdynasty REN Fang had extremely low positions with few salaries untilthe Qi dynasty when he repeatedly obtained promotion due toappreciations and recognitions from WANG Jian and XIAO Zi-Liang.Because of suspicion and jealousy of Emperor Ming in the Qi dynasty aswell as the loss of supports from WANG Jian and XIAO Zi-Liang due totheir failures in political struggles and their successive deaths, RENFang was chronically put in a very unimportant position. Under suchcircumstances, REN Fang had no choice but to serve Eunuch MEI Chong-Erwith repressed disgrace. Up to the time when Emperor Wu established thecountry of Liang, REN Fang, as the old friend of Emperor Wu made in theXIAO Zi-Liang’s official residence, was therefore given an importantposition.
Since the Song dynasty REN Fang has been involved inextensively social activities. A case in point is that REN Fangparticipated in nearly all the influential groups of literati in theQi- and Liang- dynasties. Included in the REN Fang’s intercoursecircles are: (1) noble families in the North and families with inferiorsocial status in the South, and (2) important officials and recluses.What most deserves esteem is that REN Fang through his own influencesand power promoted and cultivated large numbers of young low-bornintellectuals, who had significant and far-reaching effects on thepolitical and literary innovations in the Liang dynasty. As a typicalrepresentative of literati who were enthusiastic about socialactivities in the Qi- and Liang- dynasties, REN Fang receivedcontroversial appraisals from the contemporaries, of whom LIU Xiao-Biaoeven wrote a terribly famous article entitled on Breaking off aFriendship-targeting the REN Fang’s social activities. We haveconducted investigations into REN Fang’s lifelong social activities,which were considered to at least produce the following effects: (1)facilitating and promoting merging of families from the South and theNorth; (2) enhancing communications between celebrities and recluses;(3) promoting academic advancement; and (4) promoting the innovationsof poesy or poetry.
REN Fang, a historian in the Qi- and Liang-dynasties, once served as Emperor Wu’s historiographer whereas norecords are available to confirm that REN Fang had written canonicalhistory. Those who lived after him merely knew that REN Fang hadwritten or compiled geographical books or biographies. The detailsabout biographies remain unknown while geographical books can providesome useful information or clues. By investigating and recording RENFang’s bibliography of geographical books from bibliographical books inthe Sui- and Tang- dynasties. REN Fang’s geography, largely classifiedas chorography and directly affected by Wang Jian and Lu Teng,synthesized the piths of geography in the Han-, Jin-, Song-, Qi-dynasties as well as those in the South and in the North.
REN Fangwas a bibliographer with great accomplishment. Although his family hadfallen into poverty Ren Fang started to serve as Bo shi at the age of16, transcribing or recording books until the time he died in Xin Anwhen in power. Within over thirty years, REN Fang had collected morethan ten thousand volumes of books and delved into catalogs, includingFour-Part Catalog and Seven-Part Catalog. At that time, delving intocatalogs had become a trend or vogue. Since he had made great effortsin collecting and arranging books REN Fang was appointed to collectbooks in the initial stage of establishment of the country of Liang andcompiled the first bibliography in the Liang dynasty entitled Tian JianFive-Year Mi Ge Four-Part bibliography, which had significant effectson offspring.
REN Fang was a literature theoretician in the Liangdynasty and had the works Wen zhang Yuan qi handed down. This works wasconsidered to be a fake one by the people living in the Qing dynastybut their adduced evidence was unjustifiable. However, we can adducesix items of evidence to demonstrate that extant Wen zhang Yuan qi waslargely in accordance with its original version. By makinginvestigations into the meanings of “ Wen zhang”, “ Yuan qi” and “ Shi”, we know that this book was completed during the period when Wen zhangtheory had been highly developed in the South dynasty. Wen zhang Yuanqi summarized bibliographical fruits of anthologies since the Handynasty, absorbed Yuan qi thoughts of Buddhism, generalized eighty-fourliterary styles, and showed their initial origin. Wen zhang Yuan qideems that a majority of literary styles occurred in the Han dynasty,which is a very advanced idea of literary styles for the reason that itis closest to the fact about the occurrence of literary styles whencompared with the theory that literary styles originated from Six-Jinand Zhan Guo. At that time, under the circumstances where LiteraryTheory are in sharp conflict with Jin Xue, Wen zhang Yuan qi’sdissemination of his theory about the origin of literary stylesexhibited the independence of literary theory. Wen zhang Yuan qicontinued to use the practice of literary theory in the South dynasty,remained individual or personal anthologies and their names, whichprovided precious clues for us to conduct in-depth research intopersonal anthologies since the Han dynasty and was able to mutuallyconfirm personal anthologies in Shi Pin and Wen xin Diao long. Wenzhang Yuan qi’ s classification in terms of compiling catalogues paidattention to the forms but not to the contents of literary styles. Inaddition, a total of eighty-four literary styles were included inone-grade catalogue classification. Although Wen zhang Yuan qi wasconsidered to have this and that deficiency by those who lived afterREN Fang, it indeed represented the highest achievement in the area ofliterary styles of that time, which presented the basis ofclassification of literary styles for XIAO Tong’s Anthology and gaveinspiration for LIU Xie’ s establishment of the thoughts about theorigin of literary styles. What deserves our attention is that RENFang’s theory of the origin of literary styles had had far-reachingeffects on the offspring and that its influence even extended to theQing dynasty. Therefore, we can find out the developmental course oftheory of the origin of literary styles according to REN Fang’sinfluences on the later dynasties. We can subdivide literary stylesinto the following four types: (1) Theory about explanations for thenames of literary styles; (2) Theory about the origin of literarystyles; (3) Theory about anthology; and (4) Theory about literaryappreciation. REN Fang’s academic status in the area of literary theorywas quite obvious and therefore he can be considered the founder oftheory about the origin of literary styles.
REN Fang was arepresentative poet in the Qi-Liang poetical circles and the remarkablefeature of his poems is to cite literary quotations, which can not beeasily detected from his extant poems while Shu Yi Ji has provided uswith some related clues. REN Fang completely differs from SHENG Yue inliterary quotation. Three-Simpleness Theory advanced by SHENG Yueemphasized that the literary quotations cited in the poems should becommon and easily comprehended and accepted by others. However, theliteray quotations cited by REN Fang in his poems are primarily derivedfrom uncommon chorography and novels. Based on the information or cluessupplied by Shi Pi and Preface to the History of Literature in Historyof South-Qi, we can further find out another poetic school followingREN Fang during the Qi-Liang period, which mainly consists of suchpoets as XIE Chao-Zong, QIU Ling-Ju, LIU Xiang, TAN Chao, ZHONG Xian,YAN Ze, GU Ze-Xin, WANG Rong, LIU Hui, QIU Chi, LIU Bao, LIU Xiao-Zhuo,WANG Seng-Yu,etc. It was found that literary citation begins from theJian An period for the mere purpose of more explicitly narrating andexpressing one's feelings and emotions at that time. Fu Xie and YingMao in the Jin dynasty progressed to directly introduce literaryquotations into poems. Yan Yin-Zhi and Xie Zhuang in the Song dynastyare more rigorous in literary citation, thereby making it more and moreacademic. During the Qi-Liang dynasty due to lack of being chronicallyinfluenced by Jing Learning REN Fang and his devoted followers tend tocited some literary quotations from outside Jin and Shi.On one hand,the REN Fang poetic school seeks for innovative approaches on the basisof returing to historical tradition. On the other hand, the SHENG Yuepoetic school breaks through the old-styled poem's obstacles bylearning folksongs and obsorbing extraneous or foreign Rhyme Theory.What SHENG Yue and REN Fang represents are two types of innovativetrends in the Five-Yan poem since the Song dynasty, which echo with twosorts of worldwide medieval literary innovations. Not until the laterstage of the Liang dynasty did these two trends merge, which eventuallybrought about thorough innovations of the Five-Yan poem from content toform, thereby resulting in the birth of the Gong-Ti poem.Therefore,research into the REN Fang poetic school is extraordinarily meaningfultoday.
REN bi possessed high reputation. In the South dynasty, theconception “bi” was widely used but its meaning still remained vague.When putting bi into Yan bi, Dao bi, Shi bi, and Wen bi to distinguishbi’s meanings, we know that bi contains all the characters or lettersother than written language, history, official documents, and poems.Only the word “Wen bi” had the vaguest meaning. Virtually, Wen bi wasjust a consistently used parlance and had no fixed meaning at all.Through these investigations we also know that REN bi is the oppositeconception to REN shi, and that it contains all the literary styles inREN Fang’s works except for poems. REN bi has strong functions innarration and argumentation, conveys very strong emotions and feelings,and has flexible and abundant forms in citing literary quotations. Thestyle of REN bi is directly affected by Fu Xie and Wang Jian, and hassignificant effect on Wei Shou in the North Qi dynasty and YU Xin inthe Chen dynasty. From the perspective of Pi wen’s development, REN biis the turning point of development from Pin wen which excessivelypursued parallelism and literary citations in the Song dynasty to Xu YuTi in the Chen dynasty, which plays an important role in promoting thefurther development of Pi wen. From the perspective of worldwidemedieval literary, Ri bi aptly indicates the trends to merge CenterLiteray Style and Margin Literary Style.
The dissertation Studyon REN Fang, with the entire content of the body presented above,includes eight volumes and twenty-nine chapters. In each chapter I havesolved at least one issue and each result is original or creativewithout any plagiarism or hackneyed ideas.
Keywords: REN Fang ; Wen zhang Yuan qi ;REN Fang’s Bi;REN Fang’s

内容提要 3


ABSTRACT 6


序 10


卷第一 任昉身世考 23


壹 父系 23


贰 母系 27


叁 占籍 31


肆 名、字、小名、称号 34


要 略 37


卷第二 任昉仕履考 38


伍 仕宋 38


陆 仕齐 42


柒 仕梁 50


要 略 56


卷第三 任昉交游考 57


捌 任昉在齐代之交游 58


玖 任昉在梁代之交游 71


拾 反绝交论 74


要 略 77


卷第四 任昉地理书考 78


拾壹 任昉地理书之内容 78


壹贰 任昉地理学之地位 85


要 略 87


卷第五 任昉目录学考 88


拾叁 任昉所聚之书 88


拾肆 任昉所研之书目 91


拾伍 任昉所治之书目 94


要 略 100


卷第六 论《文章缘起》 101


拾陆《文章缘起》不是伪书 101


拾柒 《文章缘起》释名 108


拾捌 《文章缘起》的体例 120


拾玖 《文章缘起》的文类 125


贰拾 《文章缘起》的影响与流传 128


要 略 130


卷第七 论任诗 132


贰壹 任昉诗之内容 132


贰贰 任昉诗之特点 138


贰叁 任昉一系诗人 146


贰肆 任昉诗系溯源 151


贰伍 任昉诗再评介 156


要 略 157


卷第八 论任笔 159


贰陆 南朝之笔 159


贰柒 任笔之内容 164


贰捌 任笔之特点 173


贰玖 任笔之源流与评价 175


要 略 176

主要参考文献 177


附录壹 任昉年谱 192


附录贰 评点任昉 208


附录叁 任集著录 232


附录肆 任集序跋 236


论文独创性声明 239


跋 240